Машиналар жана унаалар

UAL flight 328

Observations of the video available showing the engine failure and fire aboard United Airlines flight 328 on Feb 20 2021.
From the point of view of an engine guy.
Here is a link to P&W's page about this engine:
prattwhitney.com/products-and-services/products/commercial-engines/pw4000-112
Here's an operating manual for the P&W4000 series engines for pilots:
www.theairlinepilots.com/forumarchive/a310/a310pw4000seriesoperation.pdf
The Turbofan design engineer referred to in the video is my friend grahamj9101
When the final NTSB report is released, we will see how close or how far off the mark I really am.

Жорумдар 

  1. humanhiveanomaly

    humanhiveanomaly

    40 мүнөт мурун

    Truth isn't as profitable as selling amplified and manufactured drama.

  2. Alexander Shevchenko

    Alexander Shevchenko

    2 саат мурун

    One fan blade found on the ground🤔🤣 is it contained failure?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      13 мүнөт мурун

      You think you witty, but that's only because you're ignorant. We're seeing a lot of you people commenting on this video.

  3. vaughnbay

    vaughnbay

    8 саат мурун

    The power of the cellphone camera! Had a few seconds of video not been recorded by a passenger we wouldn't have even heard of this failure. Humans like being emotional. It's more fun than being objective.

  4. desiatohotblack

    desiatohotblack

    13 саат мурун

    I'm sure the good folks over at the NTSB will get arrive at the right answers when the dust settles, but as long as we're all speculating: There ought to be some consideration that the broken fan blade might be a result, and not the cause. After all, severe vibration notwithstanding, no real theories have been offered as to why a thrown blade would cause a fire in the hot section. Compressor stalls could result in that. When they do occur --at a rate way more frequent than that of failed fan blades, I think-- they may manifest themselves across the whole range of drama, from the barely noticeable, discernable only by discrete powerplant-monitoring instrumentation, all the way to the very attention-grabbing loud bangs, explosions, and shaking, with flames blowtorching out of both the back and front ends. Along with broken engine parts, sometimes. "Axi-symmetric stall, more commonly known as compressor surge; or pressure surge, is a complete breakdown in compression resulting in a reversal of flow and the violent expulsion of previously compressed air out through the engine intake, due to the compressor's inability to continue working against the already-compressed air behind it." en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressor_stall "If... the conditions that induced the stall remain, the return of stable airflow will reproduce the conditions at the time of surge and the process will repeat." "Such a "locked-in" or self-reproducing stall is particularly dangerous, with very high levels of vibration causing accelerated engine wear and possible damage, even the total destruction of the engine through the breaking of compressor and stator vanes and their subsequent ingestion, destroying engine components downstream." Could happen. The NTSB investigation will reveal all.

  5. D. Geo

    D. Geo

    14 саат мурун

    As always excellent review thank you AgentZ.

  6. Justin Fritz

    Justin Fritz

    16 саат мурун

    Your recognition of the specialized knowledge that engineers possess is refreshing and appreciated. Good engineers recognize that the mechanics and maintenance personnel also possess the unique mix of knowledge and skills needed to make the whole big thing work. Great video!!

  7. A Hannam

    A Hannam

    16 саат мурун

    Praise the wing they can handle a lot of stress and load

  8. Star Gazer

    Star Gazer

    17 саат мурун

    Love your channel and info however, if *I* were P&W, that particular engine would be scrapped after investigation. What customer (Boeing or airline) would want to take delivery of that particular engine?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      4 саат мурун

      I imagine an exchange between the owner of the engine and the overhaul shop might go a little like: Well, the estimated cost for rebuilding and recertifying this engine will be about 15 million dollars, or we can get a new one for 21 plus taxes... Your choice.

    • Star Gazer

      Star Gazer

      14 саат мурун

      @AgentJayZ what I mean is that: Who would want to take delivery of this engine?- by serial number- and being "rebuilt" by P&W and say "yeah, it's good, we trust it...". If I'm an airline, Imma say "No, you provide me a different engine than the one that blew up...". AgentJayZ, you don't know me but we both fix airplanes. I'm just sayin that no airline or even Boeing should accept this engine, by serial number, as "repaired" enough to fly again. If they choose to part it out, fine, but to repair it and send it on it's way, no. No one should want this one. If I owned a personal airplane and the Lycoming IO540 blew and seized and Lycoming "rebuilt" it, I don't think I'd want that particular engine block, I'd want a different one altogether.....

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      17 саат мурун

      Blaaaagh. There are procedures the professionals follow regarding the evaluation of multi million dollar parts that people like you are completely ignorant of. You bet I said people like you, and you bet I said ignorant. Ignorant people like you. Now go away.

  9. Gavin Green

    Gavin Green

    18 саат мурун

    Please don't stop your rantings you, Juan Browne and Victor at Vass Avaition are the no nonsense professionals. You have every right, you all tell it straight! Keep up the great work! Love to learn the incredible design and engineering that make these machines power our world. Bet we all would be lost if there were no turbine engines or those that keep them flying, etc.

  10. Adnan Kaba

    Adnan Kaba

    18 саат мурун

    Engine is not scrap? are you serious? Sure as hell looks scrap to me! Why would they in their right mind even take a chance with repairing it with parts? That's absolute lunacy!

    • L J

      L J

      6 саат мурун

      @AgentJayZ Morning AgentJayZ. Yes, to a working stiff AMT like myself it's a hell of a lot of money! But like you said it'll be torn down, inspected piece by piece to determine what happened, and if there's anything left to salvage it'll be put back into service. It'll be interesting to see if the Feds require that the NDT inspection intervals be updated on the PW's. I don't work for UA, and my experience is mostly with GE's and Roll's, but whenever we pull blades for a fan lube the blades are NDT'ed before reinstallation. I'm sure UA does the same so I'm also curious to know why it failed. Had corrosion set in? Did a stress riser form due to FOD damage? Was the blade ever dropped? I can't imagine it left PW with a flaw in the metallurgy, but I guess it could happen. Regardless, I have no doubt Pratt, UA, and the Feds are all over this and will figure it out!

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      17 саат мурун

      Thanks, L J. I just checked, and the new cost of P&W 4000-112 is 21 million US Dollars. That's a lot, right?

    • L J

      L J

      18 саат мурун

      It looked much worse than it actually was. That's a 10 million dollar engine, just for a worn out core, so yes it'll be repaired. People don't realize a lot of times on these older airframes the engines are worth more than the aircraft itself and most of times are leased.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      18 саат мурун

      So says another expert... Everything will be inspected, and each part will either fail or pass the required tests. If a part passes, it is serviceable. Now, Mr. Adnan Kaba: go away, read some books, and do not comment until you reach the minimum level of competency. Thank you.

  11. andy5478

    andy5478

    19 саат мурун

    I'll tell you the same thing I told Blancoliro--- You have a fascinating channel and you do a great job explaining. But there is nothing to be gained by bashing the media and calling them alarmists. To your own admission this was a big deal. To the untrained it was even a bigger deal. Semantics of whether it was contained or uncontained is irrelevant to those involved and the community below where the parts rained down. I'm sure pax on the right side especially were terrified at the sight. You may have been as well if you were on that plane. I probably would have been as well and I'm a very calm person, ppl and engineer. The crew called may day which meant they thought it was a big deal as well. Even a contained failure can be deadly as we tragically witnessed on SW 1380. Seems like it was pure luck that the fan blade didn't rip through the cabin of this UAL flight in the same manner.

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      15 саат мурун

      I don’t feel your accusations towards Blancolirio of bashing the media was anywhere near warranted but clearly understood by his viewers well, with the exception here, what he was referring too. I think the track record of the media with their hype and fabrication of incidences of this nature plus improper use of terms speaks for itself. You sound like a very knowledgeable person and your defense for the media may be due to having a relative or close friend in the occupation. However, to the loyal viewers it doesn’t hold water how they feel about them.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      18 саат мурун

      I don't have this channel to attack, defend, or argue. It's information based, where I share my work, and my opinions sometimes. All I can tell you is contained means the engine cases were not penetrated by engine parts. A lot of strange, unfortunate things happened with this engine, but the engine cases were not breached by anything. I am not interested in debating or redefining what accepted industry standards mean.

    • andy5478

      andy5478

      19 саат мурун

      @AgentJayZ Wasn't SW 1380 also a contained failure and a part from the engine broke the window resulting in the pax death? Maybe it wasn't a fan blade but something flew off that engine and broke the window that resulted in a tragic death. It has to be moving fast and deliver sufficient force to break the window. Also as for the blade not having high energy when it departed the engine, this is curious to me. It's spinning very fast and it wants to pull itself forward as it leaves the engine when it fails, doesn't it? It still must have a whole lot of centripetal force that wants to throw itself radially outward, no?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      19 саат мурун

      Everything you said was great. Right up until the last sentence. This was a contained failure, which means no high energy parts ripped through the cases and penetrated the fuselage. The whole contained/uncontained issue is of critical importance to the aircraft maker, and the engine maker... and to the people who did not die. Luck had nothing to do with it... it was engineering, and it was safety requirements set by the NTSB and the FAA, and it was the skills of the flight crew, who dealt with this engine failure in the best way that any crew could have. No injuries is the most important part of the story.

  12. charlie tang

    charlie tang

    20 саат мурун

    well explained with you in-depth knowledge. thx

  13. Arthur Saenz

    Arthur Saenz

    21 саат мурун

    What I think I saw was yet another lack of proper ND Testing from United's engine overhaul practices. This is not the first time that this has happen to them. When the R/H start lever was moved to cutoff the EEC shut the engine off as its suppose to. The pylon fuel valve was closed by the R/H fire handle (there is no eng. 1 OR 2 on the 777) The fire in the right engine was the 5 quarts of fuel from the fuel filter case that ruptured at the lines and what was left from the main feed from the pylon. The 777 was climbing at a CLMB 1 power setting at a cost index of zero which translates to 314 knots when it gave way. Also when a two engine aircraft looses one of its engines, it a MAYDAY! This is standard world wide ICAO lingo and consistent with Boeing's FOM. Regardless of all the Monday night quarterbacking. Mine included. United has to answer as well as the ENGINE PMI (FAA) for lack of proper Non destructive testing and oversight of the fan blades.

  14. Jerry Foust

    Jerry Foust

    21 саат мурун

    Could not the engine and or the wing have easily exploded into flame?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      20 саат мурун

      If it was easy, it woulda happened.

  15. Lon LeVine

    Lon LeVine

    21 саат мурун

    Hi AgentJayZ. If the outer half of the broken blade was found in the soccer field amongst the cowling debris, and the other blade was found in the fuselage wing/LG fairing, it does not sound very contained to me. Perhaps the Kevlar blanket contained the blades at failure, but then they escaped? Kudos to Boeing for building an aircraft that could stand up to that vibrational abuse.

  16. Stephen Gile

    Stephen Gile

    22 саат мурун

    Don't know which videos you have watched but, in one of the ones I saw, for just a moment it looked like the was light passing through the Kevlar containment blanket at approximately the 11:00 to 11:30 position. My guess would be that the 1st fan blade that separated struck the 2nd blade on it's way out, fracturing it, then cutting through the nose cowl causing it to separate, with the rest of the cowl panels, not wanting to be left out, followed very quickly due to the slipstream air pressure. The second fan blade, the one with the outer 1/3 to 1/2 gone, may be the one that made the hole in the Kevlar containment blanket. . Just my thoughts and even though DIA is just a stones throw away, doubt they would let my butt in to look....LOL. Nice to have an A&P's side of the story.

  17. Bryan Rocker

    Bryan Rocker

    Күн мурун

    INHO, the High Pressure compressor and its turbine(s) are probably trashed as well. When fan blades break off the collateral damage to the nacelle, other fan blades etc send bits of metal down stream and ultimately pass through the rest of the engine increasing the damage as it goes along. The fire in the thrust reverser area looks like an oil (hydraulic/lubricating). I don't trust the mainstream media to get anything right. P&W needs to get to the root of this problem and resolve it. This is not the first engine to have this failure mode.

  18. Covid Hoax

    Covid Hoax

    Күн мурун

    Everybody is the expert on the internet.

  19. Andrew

    Andrew

    Күн мурун

    Journalism is on life support these days. Most newspapers will just google "jet expert" and call the first number they find without checking if the person knows what they're talking about. That's assuming they even call somebody and don't just guess on their own.

  20. Robert Bandusky

    Robert Bandusky

    Күн мурун

    When engine fire handle was pulled, we’re all fluids shutoff? Fuel, oil, hydraulics cutoff? Source of fire could have been hydraulic fluid or as you mentioned oil?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      Күн мурун

      There is no magic valve that handles everything. The oil is in a tank on the engine. Even if hydraulic fluid was shut off to the engine, the amount that was already there would suffice to keep such a small fire going for a few minutes.

  21. John van Kampen

    John van Kampen

    Күн мурун

    The same day above Meerssen, Netherlands, was rained by turbine parts from a B747 going to Lége (Luik) in Belgium due to engine failure: kgkey.info/block/0WJrobyjrqiDw3o/video.html

  22. Matthew Spychalski

    Matthew Spychalski

    Күн мурун

    What do you think caused the damage to the underbelly of the plane? Just a piece of the outer casing shooting off?

    • Matthew Spychalski

      Matthew Spychalski

      Күн мурун

      @AgentJayZ awesome, just watched that, makes sense. Thanks for your video too, very informative

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      Күн мурун

      The NTSB has released an early statement about this. Blancolirio mention it in his latest vid.

  23. zoidberg444

    zoidberg444

    Күн мурун

    Great to get all the facts. Aviation info for me is generally broncolirio or mentour pilot. You're the man for jet engines. 👌

  24. Rob P.

    Rob P.

    Күн мурун

    Hairline Cracked fan blades is nothing new and FAA directives were already in place for X-raying fan blades at certain maintenance intervals - were these established FAA maintenance directives ignored or was this a failure in spite of the maintenance? In other words, was this engine maintained to existing standards or is it negligence?

    • Stephen Britt

      Stephen Britt

      Күн мурун

      Per the EAD, the FAA is requiring thermal imaging tests and reviewing previous tests on the blades. A previous blade failure in 2018 on a P&W 4000 had already prompted increased inspections on the fan blades. (Obviously did not solve the issue unfortunately.)

  25. Robert Davis

    Robert Davis

    Күн мурун

    I think one of the blades failed and took out another one. I've flown times when a return to the FBO was needed because of an bad indicator light. A PITA. But I appreciate the Airline Co. taking safety seriously. Great observations Agent Jay Z!

  26. Fernando Lichtschein

    Fernando Lichtschein

    Күн мурун

    Thanks for the explanation, when I saw the flames I thought I was looking at the exposed insides of the combustors.

  27. A R

    A R

    Күн мурун

    I agree that MSM makes too much of aviation events. But it was an emergency and a serious event. Everyone stop complaining about MSM lying. It’s hyperbole and exaggeration out of ignorance, not lying. And by the way, there was an explosion strong enough to shed aircraft aircraft parts so that was a pretty major engine failure.

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      Hyperbole or exaggeration out of ignorance it’s still unprofessional and uncalled for.

  28. Bogbanter

    Bogbanter

    Күн мурун

    Question: was that damaged engine still producing thrust? Or it spinning due to air speed?

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      You should subscribe to Juan’s channel he like AgentZ explained that very well.

    • James Samuel

      James Samuel

      Күн мурун

      If it didn’t windmill it would create excessive drag and make the aircraft very difficult to fly.

    • Johan Fasth

      Johan Fasth

      Күн мурун

      It's windmilling as he said.

  29. Draviator

    Draviator

    Күн мурун

    Are you saying that the media is using fear-mongering to inflate a certain event? That's just impossible!

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      The object to them is to get the majority to watch or read their Channel because it’s more interesting. Of course this is totally opposite of reporting the straight facts and not in line with what they’re real position should be.

    • Johan Fasth

      Johan Fasth

      Күн мурун

      :) Spot on...

  30. Paul Glinz

    Paul Glinz

    Күн мурун

    I am struggling to understand, If none of the separated fan blades or fragments were to be found WITHIN the engine (I assume they were not-I may be wrong), then did they not DEPART the engine? And if so, how could that then be labelled a "contained failure" if they are nowhere to be seen ?

    • damientelle

      damientelle

      Күн мурун

      @AgentJayZ exactly it is a contained engine failure as it is defined for engine certification : no radial ejection of engine parts. for exemple AF and QL A380 engine failure were uncontained engine failure: Engine fairing gone as well but Fan gone on AF and HPT ripped off on QL. in both cases radial ejection did damaged wing and fuselage. UAL fligth may have damaged on wings due to fairing impact but these are low energy impact resulting of the aerodynamic forces applied on the fairing, not high kinetic energy impact resulting from rotating blades.

    • Paul Glinz

      Paul Glinz

      Күн мурун

      @AgentJayZ Thanks for the explanation. Don't get p.o.'d I'm just trying to learn something. Obviously I'm not a pilot or mechanic, just trying to understand the terminology being applied. Obviously it is a very "narrow" and legalistic definition of the word "contained" and not one used in everyday speech which is what most of the planet uses.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      Күн мурун

      So tired of trying to explain to you people... Conversational definitions of words mean whatever you want. The industry definition of contained means the engine cases were not breached. The engine cases were not breached.

    • Quill Maurer

      Quill Maurer

      Күн мурун

      My understanding is that it can still be considered a contained failure if debris was ejected out the back, presumably not at extremely high speed, as that shouldn't damage the rest of the aircraft or endanger anyone - nothing behind the engine for it to hit. Uncontained would mean it threw stuff out the side or front that could damage the rest of the aircraft or injure it's occupants.

  31. Dave Shepherd

    Dave Shepherd

    Күн мурун

    Thanks for spreading the truth!

  32. HuckThis1971

    HuckThis1971

    Күн мурун

    I worked at Rolls-Royce Canada and I knew right away it was missing fan blades from that wobble. Engine design did its job of Containing the failure. Kevlar ring did its job. Worse case engine mounting bolts would have sheared and engine would have detached.

  33. Dennis Salisbury

    Dennis Salisbury

    Күн мурун

    The reason I ignore the MSM at all times, they are worthless clickbait whores not worthy of the title journalists.

    • Dennis Salisbury

      Dennis Salisbury

      Күн мурун

      @lysippus We live in a world of compromises.

    • lysippus

      lysippus

      Күн мурун

      and youtube and youtube recco. is not? haaha.

  34. viperdriver82

    viperdriver82

    Күн мурун

    I believe what they meant by "not an emergency landing" is that they won't have to brace during the landings

    • Quill Maurer

      Quill Maurer

      Күн мурун

      It would have been considered an emergency landing in that the pilots declared a mayday, but once actually landing it was a normal landing, and at that point I would imagine they wouldn't have asked passengers to brace.

  35. Calvin Dodge

    Calvin Dodge

    Күн мурун

    To be fair, some blade fragments made a hole in the wing-body fairing on that side.

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      I think we have a media infiltrated here

    • Calvin Dodge

      Calvin Dodge

      Күн мурун

      @AgentJayZ Thanks for the info.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      Күн мурун

      We don't know they were blade fragments, to be fair...

  36. Joe Danay

    Joe Danay

    Күн мурун

    Thanks, Jay! I'm 4 days behind on this. Glad there's no injuries. Passengers will need laundry services;)

  37. Dr. Qaiser Haider

    Dr. Qaiser Haider

    Күн мурун

    You are the guy who exactly knows what you are talking about. The total control over the subject. Love it.

  38. Star Trooper

    Star Trooper

    Күн мурун

    L.p. shaft would break it's designed to fail in blade out event.

    • L M

      L M

      Күн мурун

      what the crap? no definitely not

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      Күн мурун

      No.

  39. grahamj9101

    grahamj9101

    2 күн мурун

    I've seen Juan Brown's latest video clip, which he posted outside the Albert Hall in London, after a ten-hour flight with tons of Californian asparagus in the back. I'm sorry (not really), but he got a black mark from me for being thoroughly irresponsible, and doing walkabout when we're in lockdown and being told to "stay at home"

    • grahamj9101

      grahamj9101

      33 мүнөт мурун

      @John Watkin We are in lockdown and we are being told to stay home, unless we have a "reasonable excuse" - and that incudes him. That's the law: he broke the law. I've visited the States a few times and I'm sure that I was exected to obey the law in the USA.

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      @Jesse W right with all of southern FL rotting away with the mess.

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      Huh! Now how do you suppose he’s to do his job as a pilot at home plus he was out in the open and around no one in close proximity. He also started out wearing a mask that was removed by the London breeze. Come on we have enough agitators don’t need anymore.

    • Jesse W

      Jesse W

      Күн мурун

      I'm in Florida we don't even wear masks and been open for months. We have the lowest transmission rates btw

    • Jesse W

      Jesse W

      Күн мурун

      You're nuts

  40. Yogib37

    Yogib37

    2 күн мурун

    just found your channel. I agree with you on everything. I subcribed to the blanco channel and what you said about him is spot on, but he tell it in a normal way so other people can understand. I dont like the Media just jumping in and say it is this or that, I knew even before the picture was uploaded it was caused by a blade the let go. I guess the media has never seen pictures on a normal engine change that the Nacell's are still attached to the plane.. You are right it is part of the plane. I am an A&P but have not been working on planes for a very long time.

  41. abcd60528

    abcd60528

    2 күн мурун

    Very true that it was very lucky!

  42. David Sullivan

    David Sullivan

    2 күн мурун

    For the media, this is an entertainment event. The more drama the higher the ratings. Facts are not relevant.

    • thomas mcdonald

      thomas mcdonald

      18 саат мурун

      Man that’s the truth!

    • Mikeydude001

      Mikeydude001

      Күн мурун

      People personally involved in something the media reports about knows that the media usually gets the facts wrong. Then we go on to the next story and believe it? LOL.

  43. Ron Adams

    Ron Adams

    2 күн мурун

    Thanks for the break-down and info. Good stuff, well presented!

  44. Herbert Laughlin

    Herbert Laughlin

    2 күн мурун

    I think that the fan blades failed due to metal fatigue and 1.5 fan blades exited out the front taking the engine inlet cowling and the main cowling mounting bracket with it. In addition, it appeared from the video that the engine lost all of it covers when the main cowling support bracket was severed by parts of the fan. That 8 foot long heavy chunk of metal that hit the street next to an SUV, heard audibly, falling from 14,000 feet, gaining speed every second until impact could have cause catastrophic damage had it hit a home. I bet when they examine the broken blades, they discover that they failed due to loss of stiffness. The same thing that happens to steel ships on the ocean. They are forced to be retired do to metal fatigue. Metal that flexes looses stiffness and after a period of time, it breaks! Why are they ignoring the facts????

    • D. Geo

      D. Geo

      14 саат мурун

      Until it reaches terminal velocity, BTW what news paper do you write for?

    • clapanse

      clapanse

      Күн мурун

      It's certainly possible it was a fatigue failure, and this wouldn't be the first undetected fatigue failure on one of these. aerossurance.com/safety-management/ndi-failures-b777-pw4077-fbo/ I've also heard some speculation that it's possibly a bird strike, but we'll probably need to wait for the incident report to know for sure.

    • azonicrider32

      azonicrider32

      Күн мурун

      @Herbert Laughlin Dude, you are explaining the abc's to rocket scientists..

    • Herbert Laughlin

      Herbert Laughlin

      Күн мурун

      @grahamj9101 Thanks for your comment and I agree. I suggest that hollow blades on larger applications may have increased stresses not previously determined?

    • grahamj9101

      grahamj9101

      2 күн мурун

      The industry knows far more about metal fatigue than you do - obviously. Components such as blades are designed to avoid excessive excitation that will result in them having unacceptably low fatigue lives, and they are rigorously inspected at repair and overhaul for any signs of fatigue. Major components, such as discs and shafts are designed to a 'predicted safe cyclic life' (PSCL), but are cleared for only a small proportion of their PSCL at entry into service, with lives being extended progressively, by means of sampling and inspection. It is probable that there is some internal non-conforming feature, relative to design intent, in those blades that have failed, which cannot be inspected easily. The vast majority of blades have, after all, run perfectly safely for tens of thousands of hours. If they hadn't done so, then there would have been the risk of engine and/or cowling debris being scattered around the world years ago, and PW 4000 engines would have been grounded years ago.

  45. Almerinda Romeira

    Almerinda Romeira

    2 күн мурун

    So the giant hole in the fuselage was already there?? It IS an uncontainned failure engine...

    • Almerinda Romeira

      Almerinda Romeira

      2 күн мурун

      @Yogib37 you shouldn't rate it for how bad it was, but how bad it could have been. I know its non critical but if it broke it, it could easily also have ruptured a line or cable behind it. After all composites have sharp edges. I'll wait for the final report, as I'm not so convinced it was just a cowling piece.

    • Yogib37

      Yogib37

      2 күн мурун

      @Almerinda Romeira that is an aerodynamic fairing.. It is nothing but just a thin piece of composite. Nothing under that was damage and it was not caused by the fan blade, It most likely was part of the Nacell that broke off and hit it. It is still a contain engine failure. The engine was in tack and not scatter all over the place

    • Ron Adams

      Ron Adams

      2 күн мурун

      Sorry, I corrected my original response. I'm not sure why, but I typed "uncontained", when he actually said they did "not consider it to be uncontained". Regardless, I understand the liability issue. kgkey.info/block/joaagK_VnLRjlZw/video.html

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      2 күн мурун

      Ron. It is a very important detail. Who gets blamed for the millions of dollars in damage... the aircraft maker or the engine maker? The NTSB has decided this was a contained engine failure. The blame game is complicated, but crucial.

    • David Sullivan

      David Sullivan

      2 күн мурун

      @Ron Adams That was his initial judgement, but since has been revised as more facts become available. (I say facts not speculations!)

  46. SIE44TAR

    SIE44TAR

    2 күн мурун

    11:18 "I gotta say, the journalists know nothing. They don't know anything." Yep, that about sums up today's media.

    • lysippus

      lysippus

      Күн мурун

      That sums up about today's politicians.

  47. yankmyfinger

    yankmyfinger

    2 күн мурун

    Great analysis JayZ. Good Job. I agree with everything you said. Retired airline pilot here. This was a textbook simulator event. We would train for this type of event every year. The weather was good. It was daylight. Great airport, Aircraft, ATC and well trained pilots.

  48. Nicholas Pratt

    Nicholas Pratt

    2 күн мурун

    Where did the missing 1½ fan blades go after leaving that cut in the front air inlet ring..

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      2 күн мурун

      @grahamj9101 Yes, I saw that, but portion is pretty non-specific. I am guessing that it is smaller than "chunk." ;-) I did once work in a lab where smidge, tad, little, and lot had specific numerical values assigned to them.

    • grahamj9101

      grahamj9101

      2 күн мурун

      @Robert Slugg Juan Brown, in his latest Blancolirio video, reports that a portion of one fan blade was found stuck somewhere in the casing, "at the one o'clock position", while another portion of a fan blade was found on the sports field where other debris fell. Which portion is from the blade that suffered the primary failure, and which is from the blade that is assumed (for the moment) to have been brought off by the primary failure, we'll have to wait for the NTSB.

    • Herbert Laughlin

      Herbert Laughlin

      2 күн мурун

      My question too. Thanks Dude!!!

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      2 күн мурун

      Speculation is that one blade cut through the front cowling (large diagonal slash) which then accelerated that separation as an intact piece. Will be interesting to see where and when the blade fragments are found. 99.9% contained is probably the more accurate assessment if 34lbs of carbon and/or titanium exited the front on the way down. If blade is rotating at 600 mph and plane is flying 200 mph then the odds are higher that the blade will go forward at that point in time. But what do I know?

  49. supercat380

    supercat380

    2 күн мурун

    Excellent commentary and analysis, Agent JZ! Nice to hear some logic after all the nonsense expressed by the fake news media and other so- called aviation experts!

    • supercat380

      supercat380

      Күн мурун

      @lysippus you are absolutely correct, Sir!!

    • lysippus

      lysippus

      Күн мурун

      Excellent commentary by you as well. I wish more people would cancel media, who cares anymore? NYT? lol. WaPo? These people should be put in jail for false things. I watched a show on fox that aviation expert David Johannson (he flew dc-10's for 40 years) explained how this thing happens. The federal government is always to blame. Simple as that.

  50. paulsautocm

    paulsautocm

    2 күн мурун

    BRAVO, this is why I follow you and Blancollrio. Keep up the GREAT work!

  51. Rocco Sound

    Rocco Sound

    2 күн мурун

    Excellent video, keep up the good work. So nice to hear cool calm engineering facts. Ive been an engineer working on PT6 TPE-331 and CFM56 for the last 33 years. This is a bit similar to the Southwest Airlines 737 incident in which the tremendous energy from the contained engine failure caused the cowl hinges or cowl latches to fail, thus causing the cowl to break up and separate from the airplane. Most people don't appreciate the amount of energy involved in a broken fan blade. In both the Southwest incident and United 328 incident the engine failures were contained. Well done to the boys who designed the debris containment shield-it worked as advertised.

  52. Brian Whippen

    Brian Whippen

    2 күн мурун

    How many engine hours on this engine or the fan would be more important because that seems to be the actual failure. More importantly probably landing takeoffs would give more insight I’m sure the experts will figure this out and make a correction. I am a mechanic as well, think about the load on that blade when the engine is nearly full thus going down the runway.

    • azonicrider32

      azonicrider32

      Күн мурун

      Ya they should check the mileage on that puppy, probably way past its oil change!

  53. a4yster

    a4yster

    2 күн мурун

    Is that Moldovan flag?? Surprising to say the least!

  54. Armorer 94

    Armorer 94

    2 күн мурун

    According to Blancolirio, the 1/2 blade was found inside the compressor stage. The complete blade is still MIA.

  55. android emulator

    android emulator

    2 күн мурун

    Calm , lucid , sensible facts .. thanks :)

  56. William Pickett

    William Pickett

    2 күн мурун

    Was that a JT-8 C-2 Fan disk that you had leaning their on your right

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      2 күн мурун

      RR Spey

  57. yxvpjs

    yxvpjs

    2 күн мурун

    Jayz ... what engine behind you ... very interesting ... does it P&W J75 ... (just guest)

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      2 күн мурун

      Orenda 14 out of an F-86F Sabre / Canadair Sabre 6

  58. Android811

    Android811

    2 күн мурун

    I would NOT like to be the guy who signed off on the last fan inspection when the FAA comes knocking.

    • thomas mcdonald

      thomas mcdonald

      18 саат мурун

      Hopefully he works at a shop that has equipment to record all their inspections in detail for just such an event.

  59. mer8771

    mer8771

    2 күн мурун

    Thank you for putting the truth out, I just wish people or the human condition would allow people to believe it. I've seen you stand up for what is right over the years and I think you for it. People really need to question everything and not believe the first person who opens their mouth or speaks the loudest. Truly an unbelievable job you do to disseminate knowledge. 👍 Juan Browne or, blancolirio is great at the other part of aviation just as you said.

  60. First Last

    First Last

    2 күн мурун

    One blade or part of coming off the fan disk and causing the damage that it did is by all technical definitions, an uncontained engine failure. It's not drama, it's a simple fact.

    • Kalvinjj

      Kalvinjj

      2 күн мурун

      The strict definition of an uncontained engine failure is that any debris or engine parts that fail penetrate the protections and exit through those protections. Simply put, the engine's cowling cannot hold the parts inside, does not contain them. A part that exits through the back of the engine for example, but didn't manage to open the protective rings is still considered a contained engine failure. Same if the part got stuck on that protection but didn't exit through it. The engine covers you see from outside don't count for that definition, they're mostly there for aerodynamics reasons. If it does whoever open up a hole through it, that in turn is uncontained. The definition itself can only be properly applied after inspecting the engine tho, from the angle seen it could very well have been uncontained if there was a hole open on the side not seen by the passengers, tho there wasn't thankfully. AgentJayZ could have been far more helpful on the reply tho no doubt. just that whole lot of "ignorant" there helped literally no one. If it was well defined on the the video, a time stamp would be enough. Otherwise, just copy and paste the definition also works.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      2 күн мурун

      You are completely incorrect. That is forgivable because there is a very strict definition of uncontained, of which you are completely ignorant. FYI : on Feb 23 , the NTSB described the failure as contained. So you are doubly ignorant. Put that on a sticker, and have a grown up stick it on your back. Then go away. Thank you.

  61. TransitBiker

    TransitBiker

    2 күн мурун

    “The engine exploded” direct words from news outlet.

  62. Brother Malachai

    Brother Malachai

    2 күн мурун

    Wanted to share this as a pilot spoke on the same incident from his perspective. kgkey.info/block/0mWLpcrUbpii2Y4/video.html

  63. mikoyanfulcrum1

    mikoyanfulcrum1

    2 күн мурун

    I love it how boeing's stock took a hit yet Boeing doesnt make engines,.... Stupid public!!!

    • Android811

      Android811

      2 күн мурун

      That's a buying opportunity!

  64. Brother Malachai

    Brother Malachai

    2 күн мурун

    When the investigation report inevitably comes out, can you come back and comment more on this incident from an insider's perspective?

  65. Mark Grant

    Mark Grant

    2 күн мурун

    Journalists over reaction is so sad. Love you guys always!

    • Brother Malachai

      Brother Malachai

      2 күн мурун

      Journalists are going to muckrake. "If it bleeds it leads."

  66. BMachine2

    BMachine2

    2 күн мурун

    Thanks AgentJayZ, always glad to learn from you. Can you do a followup on this once they have the whole story?

  67. fzj801996

    fzj801996

    2 күн мурун

    Thanks AgentJayZ for posting this!

  68. Cheezy Dee

    Cheezy Dee

    2 күн мурун

    I'm an aerospace technician with approximately 7 hours of experience watching turbine engine videos and I have conducted my own investigation of the incident and I have concluded that the engine went "kaboom", not the "Big Badda Boom" as reported in the media as there were no burn marks on the wing and apparently no holes in the fuselage as the passengers were able to video the wobbly smoldering engine. I also believe the engine is not shaking due to imbalance but it is in fact shivering due to it's clothes being ripped off in midair in subzero temperatures.

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      2 күн мурун

      That's pretty weezy, Cheezy Dee, but I like it! We could use someone like you, to translate between shop talk that the people working on the engines use, and whatever flavor of double-speak garble that management uses this year. "moving forward" I'm barfing now...

  69. Steve Roberts

    Steve Roberts

    2 күн мурун

    Really glad you got that off your chest Jay :D

  70. Jaja Jaja

    Jaja Jaja

    2 күн мурун

    This is not the first time these engines has failed . Next time it can be worst . I believe the FAA put a service warning out on these engines.

  71. Luk S

    Luk S

    2 күн мурун

    Love the engine vids thanks for explaining.

  72. theonlyari

    theonlyari

    2 күн мурун

    With this much sensationalism, imagine what would happen if there was a pandemic!

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      2 күн мурун

      They have contained themselves to only be off by an order of magnitude on that one, so far, IMHO. There is a lot of difference between dying "with" something and dying "from" something, which got lost a long time ago.

  73. A Mascia

    A Mascia

    2 күн мурун

    Like you said: could have been much worse. Sometimes things work. 👍🏼🤠

  74. DJ

    DJ

    2 күн мурун

    Vibration causing the cowl separation is more credible than the intake cowl being sliced off by a bent blade. Should the engine have been shut down earlier when excess vibration noticed as this would have saved the cowls.

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      Күн мурун

      @Curt Austin I watched one and a bunch of stuff did end up forward of the extended nacelle housing they were using. Maybe not blades, but certainly "stuff." Of course, this was stationary so a significant force component was absent from the test scenario. kgkey.info/block/ll1smKzQmNFkrHY/video.html So if the vectors are taking it laterally, what are the possibilities of the blade then sticking and rotating forwards. I am assuming that the mass in the blade is concentrated closer to the hub, so if there is a forward directed moment, could it lead to a rotation of the blade (cartwheel) which could then explain the angled slice perforation that we see in the otherwise intact cowling on the ground. I am almost certain that the blade and the cowling were intimate at some point based on the visual evidence, the big questions being when, and what part of the blade. This will be a learning experience for all, of that I am certain

    • Curt Austin

      Curt Austin

      Күн мурун

      @Robert Slugg I'm saying the vectors of the aero force and the centrifugal force - just before liberation - sum to nearly entirely in the radial direction, because 34 lbs spinning at around 2000 rpm at a radius of about three feet works out to a lot more than thrust/number of blades. I vaguely recall that that the disk of a CF6-80C2. (a smaller engine) must withstand about a million lbs of outward force from the blades, which can be compared to about 60,000 lbs of thrust. In any case, I can assure you that the engineers put the kevlar in the right place. You don't have to believe me (PhD engineer, 20 years at GE Aircraft Engines) - just watch some KGkeys of blade-out testing. Nacelles are not part of that testing, incidentally.

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      Күн мурун

      @Curt Austin Thing is, blade fragments are at an angle and pushing against air which causes them to act as a wing foil and thus move forward as well as outward. Grab a pen and paper and do the vector diagram. In addition to the 600mph tip speed, that whole blade is also moving forward at 200 mph. It is intuitively obvious to anyone who has thrown a snowball from a speeding car. The snowball at 45mph does not somehow end up behind the car moving at 60mph.

    • Curt Austin

      Curt Austin

      2 күн мурун

      @Max Canine I think Juan is wrong about this. The outward centrifugal force on a liberated fan blade is much, much greater than any aerodynamic force - it goes directly into the containment structure. In fact, you'll notice that the kevlar blanket is offset a bit aft of the plane of the fan - don't know why, but that's where the engineers expect it to go. Perhaps the following blade pushes it aft. The busted upper half of the other blade - collateral damage - might be different, but I don't see how. In any case, the 'slice' (not necessarily a slice) in the nose ring might have occurred in several other ways. After all, it fell a long way, then hit a pickup truck!

    • Max Canine

      Max Canine

      2 күн мурун

      Intake cowl was sliced by the departing fan blade. See blancolirio website and see photos.

  75. MrSwimfinz123

    MrSwimfinz123

    2 күн мурун

    Nice report, very interesting. I love your delivery. We all do!

  76. Earth Wisdom Productions

    Earth Wisdom Productions

    3 күн мурун

    One news reporter I listened to, based on some ATC exchanges, reported the pilot saying “... heavy engine failure...” Of course this was the pilot identifying himself as “328 heavy.”

  77. Darcy Hildebrand

    Darcy Hildebrand

    3 күн мурун

    AgentJayZ: What is your take on the photos of damage to the fuselage adjacent to failed engine? Caused by broken fan or turbine blades?

  78. Master Warning

    Master Warning

    3 күн мурун

    I saw photos of a large hole in the wing root area underwing section right up against the fuselage. It looked to be about a foot by 2 feet in length. Also, the flight crew can make the Mayday call to ATC and later downgrade the emergency claim. So the pilots telling passengers that they are not in an emergency..I.e. not expecting aircraft loss/further damage or passenger loss..may very well have occurred

    • Kalvinjj

      Kalvinjj

      2 күн мурун

      My bet for that hole is likely that engine cover being torn off and ripping through that part. Thankfully no hydraulic/electric lines ruptured that affected enough on the flight controls.

  79. Steve Flor

    Steve Flor

    3 күн мурун

    It is amazing to me that engine pylon DID NOT fail. And, it was able to withstand the immense torque generated by the inbalance.

  80. Mike M

    Mike M

    3 күн мурун

    Looked like the fan blade may have cut the forward cowling/shroud detaching it and the fan blade went out forwards (perhaps a combination of pressure and momentum from the collision.. Doesn't that make it an uncontained failure even if not a whole disk? If all the fan blades are generating pressure aft doe it mean that one blade can be blown forward by the pressure generated by all of the others?

    • Kalvinjj

      Kalvinjj

      2 күн мурун

      the thrust from the blade itself would just turn it sideways to the position it encounters equilibrium, and then the air around (and suction from the rest of the engine) would just push it back. An entire fan disk failing without losing it's round shape, still rotating (let's say, it detaches from the shaft clear) might propel itself some amount, but if that is enough to maintain it going forward after no torque is applied to the shaft (if it fails of course there won't be any), I would say is unlikely on flight conditions, on ground tests it probably can propel itself some amount but not with the airspeed they have up in the sky.

    • Mike M

      Mike M

      2 күн мурун

      @Njål Nilssen Have done. But with one and a bit blades floating around at high speed they could hit the wall and at that speed with leverage I could still see bits going forward. The witness marks on the cowling will be interesting.

    • Njål Nilssen

      Njål Nilssen

      3 күн мурун

      Angular momentum force trying to pull the blades out radially are ten-folds higher than any foreward momentum provided by thrust. If in doubt watch videos from "blade-out" test done during engine trials.

  81. Justin Simonsen

    Justin Simonsen

    3 күн мурун

    I learned more from your video in three minutes then anywhere else. Also you are very funny which helps.

  82. Craig Tripney

    Craig Tripney

    3 күн мурун

    Looks like some parts did get through ..........

  83. Craig Tripney

    Craig Tripney

    3 күн мурун

    kgkey.info/block/x2Z-qK_Mlddrpag/video.html

  84. that guy

    that guy

    3 күн мурун

    how much does a jet engine overhaul cost?

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      3 күн мурун

      Depends on the engine. One of these commercial airliner engines will cost many thousands of worker hours and likely a couple million in parts.

  85. T4L0N57

    T4L0N57

    3 күн мурун

    Why do people listen to the media at all anymore? Has the media done anything you useful for like the past 20 or 30 years? We need new media, old media is dead.

    • James Gray

      James Gray

      2 күн мурун

      When ratings, clicks and views are what generates revenue, the truth is the first casualty. What passes as “truth” now has more to do with who is paying for it than any actual facts or reality.

  86. None None

    None None

    3 күн мурун

    seems like there have been several "lost shroud" exposed engine failures in the past few years

  87. Karl Goebeler

    Karl Goebeler

    3 күн мурун

    Understand that there was another failure in the Netherlands Same type Go figure

  88. Kosmonooit

    Kosmonooit

    3 күн мурун

    The nacelle seems to have been sliced by the blade, whether that was the prime reason causing it to depart... ? Titanium shaft? Blanco was also saying that possibly some of the fire containment system might have gone for a walkie with the cowling (?)

  89. David Clawson

    David Clawson

    3 күн мурун

    Sadly, for news reporters, it doesn't really matter what is real, it only matters what people will believe and what will keep the advertisers happy.

    • Mike Earls

      Mike Earls

      Күн мурун

      @Robert Slugg There ya go.

    • Robert Slugg

      Robert Slugg

      Күн мурун

      @Mike Earls They belong under a train.

    • Mike Earls

      Mike Earls

      3 күн мурун

      That is a really really broad brushed statement. It basically throws the entire trade of reporting right under the bus.

  90. Christian Cormier

    Christian Cormier

    3 күн мурун

    Awesome stuff AgentJayz!

  91. New Republican

    New Republican

    3 күн мурун

    Yo, dude . . .! At 2:42 you say "one and a half fan blades have broken off", but at 2:24 you say "the engine is all there". Not to split hairs, but aren't those fan blades part of the engine ??? There are also a half dozen contradictions throughout your presentation that indicate to me, that you're not being entirely accurate in your description. Semantics ?

    • THE ORIGINAL SCOTT MALKINSON

      THE ORIGINAL SCOTT MALKINSON

      2 күн мурун

      NEW REPUBLICAN IT IS BETTER TO BE SILENT AND THOUGHT A FOOL, THAN TO OPEN ONES MOUTH AND REMOVE ALL DOUBT. THANKS FOR LIFTING ANY DOUBTS THAT YOU ARE INDEED A MORON. ARE YOU A QTARD AS WELL?? THEY HAVE AN OPINION ON EVERYTHING AS WELL, AND USUALLY IT'S B.S..

    • Ken Hildebrandt

      Ken Hildebrandt

      2 күн мурун

      @AgentJayZ Very well said. Thank you once again...

    • AgentJayZ

      AgentJayZ

      3 күн мурун

      Ahem... What I was saying was all the major engine assemblies were still there, where they were supposed to be. So anyone who said the engine "exploded" did not know what they were talking about. I still say that. Also, there not being any huge breach in any of the engine cases, this appeared to a contained engine failure... meaning that any fragments that broke off the rotating machinery did not escape the containment of the cases. Your semantics are both vague and unnecessarily pedantic. Your three question marks detracts enormously from your credibility. I don't care what my presentation indicates to you, as your level of understanding of the issues is insufficient to allow you to make a valid contribution to the discussion. You had an opportunity to learn here, but you chose to judge in ignorance, and to complain. It happens a lot on this channel. A lot of people like you are uncomfortable with changing their limited understanding of the world through adjusting to new information.

    • Brendan Cooney

      Brendan Cooney

      3 күн мурун

      @New Republican the engine is the turbine while the blades which broke are of a large fan, ie the whole is a turbofan. just like an electricity power generation is composed of a gas turbine engine and of a large generator. two separate parts joined together

    • New Republican

      New Republican

      3 күн мурун

      @Brendan Cooney Semantics, dude . . .! If the fan blades, compressor blades, shaft, etc are not part of the "engine", then what exactly IS the engine . . ., and what constitutes its failure ?

  92. Charles Bartholomew

    Charles Bartholomew

    3 күн мурун

    Thank you for sharing your expertise. Engineering is always an interesting topic.

  93. Blockstacker561

    Blockstacker561

    3 күн мурун

    I've heard reports of passengers hearing a "bang", do you have any ideas what that could have been?

    • Brian Alleman

      Brian Alleman

      3 күн мурун

      A fan blade on that engine probably weighs 40 or 50 pounds and is travelling incredibly fast as it spins. That amount of kinetic energy suddenly being unconstrained would probably make one hell of a noise.

  94. Mark Beard

    Mark Beard

    3 күн мурун

    Agreed that the blade containment system behind the fan did not release engine components, but that’s not the whole story. It seems that a fan blade failed, left the engine and cut the leading edge trim. The trim then left the aircraft, exposing the cowling behind to the airstream, and that cowling also left the aircraft. Is this an accurate description, going by what is seen on photographs of the leading edge trim? If so, does the damage to the aircraft (the leading edge trim) by the failed fan blade constitute an uncontained engine failure?

    • Graham Haynes

      Graham Haynes

      3 күн мурун

      Blancolirio suggested that that the broken blade exited the front of the engine and caused the slash in the nose cone. I'm not saying this didn't happen but at high power settings, broken blades are normally ingested rearwards into the engine, not thrown out of the intake. The nose cone flattened the roof of a truck when it fell to earth and it may have been spinning. I'm more inclined to think that the nose cone damage was caused by impact after it detached and not by the broken blade. Either way, it's the NTSB investigation and FAA safety responses that matter.

  95. Morgan Welk

    Morgan Welk

    3 күн мурун

    BBC News was reporting that the engine “fell off” the aircraft.

  96. Graham Haynes

    Graham Haynes

    3 күн мурун

    Thanks for the excellent engine summary. It's good to hear it from somebody with the relevant engine experience.

  97. tom kent

    tom kent

    3 күн мурун

    If they shut off the fuel supply why is the engine still burning?

    • c7042

      c7042

      3 күн мурун

      Possibly lubricating oil leaking from an overstressed bearing. I say this because it is a low intensity flame. Jet fuel burns a lot hotter. Wait for the report for more information.

  98. AL Dor for shore

    AL Dor for shore

    3 күн мурун

    Oh the wonderful truth-telling. media, they once put out a story that a girl drove 2000 feet off of a cliff and survived for 4 weeks with multiple fractures broken ribs and concussion sucking water out of rocks😂 and then taking selfies and smiling when she was found just a few miles from homes on a beach 😳🤣

  99. Jim Mork

    Jim Mork

    3 күн мурун

    At least the engine didn't fall off like the American Airlines engine did in Chicago. Then the plane flipped. So there is a "good news" story in this event.

    • Jim Mork

      Jim Mork

      2 күн мурун

      What I said: AA 191. Engine disconnects, plane flips on back. Faulty maintenance by contractor.

    • kimmer6

      kimmer6

      2 күн мурун

      That was American 191, May 25th 1979.

  100. Harry King

    Harry King

    3 күн мурун

    Was about to ask if the engine was complete scrap or not, thanks for answering that.

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